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Tutorials

Postby ManiaSmurf » Sat Dec 27, 2008 4:10 pm

If you are bored can you put what you know how to do in this post as it will be helpfull for new players joining us in FSX thanks
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ILS BASICS (with video)

Postby ManiaSmurf » Wed May 13, 2009 7:21 pm

tune gps to destination and get ILS CODE and set up vectors..

When about 29 nm away activate vectors to final then when en route around 1500ft on course switch from gps to nav to see glide slope when arrow is below you need to head down when it is above wait for it to reach the middle and then hit Appr button on autopilot then just control your speed.

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How To Do VOR

Postby ManiaSmurf » Thu May 21, 2009 10:41 pm

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IFR Route Planning:

Postby ManiaSmurf » Mon Jul 20, 2009 11:07 am

For the purpose of this tutorial I will set our departure airport as: EGCC (Manchester) and our destination: EGKK (Gatwick)

Some tools that you will need (sites and downloads)

http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com/public/index.php%3Foption=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=6&Itemid=13.html
http://www.vroute.net/content/view/79/52/

Firstly open up vroute and create and account.

Now that you have the software set up it is time to start planning open vroute and go to the route tab on the left side of the program click on advanced and enter in the ICAO codes for manchester and gatwick so it should look like:

ICAO from EGCC to EGKK typically operated by -- any aircraft type

Now 2 results have shown up the top ones route is HON N859 KIDLI this is the one we are going to use (it doesnt matter which one you pick)
Lets decode what this route means: HON means that the first VOR (waypoint) you fly to has the code HON (Honily VOR) Then the next VOR is KIDLI and inbetween that is n859 this is the airway that is used to get you between those 2 VOR'S.

Now we know what it means we can take a look at our cruising altitude as you can see it says FL range this is the range of altitude you can cruise at.

So click on show and this will bring up the latest METARS and the route etc etc. We dont need to worry about this all we need to do is to click on export fill out the form (make sure you fill out all of it) and export it as an FSX format Or 2004 format depending on which sim you are using.

Now the Flight plan is done we need to set up our SID'S (Standard Instrument Departure) and our stars (Standard Terminal Arrival)

This is where the above site comes in useful for England if we go to it now and select Manchester : EGCC as this is our departure airport. Now do you remember our flight plan began with the VOR HON well that means that there is going to be a SID to the HON VOR and if you look in the manchester section of that site sure enough (Honiley 1R 1Y SIDs (Jet Aircraft Only) Chart) dont worry about the fact its only jet aircraft.
now we know our SID lets take a look at it.

Now were look at the chart navigate to the runway. you can see 2 lines coming out of it and at the end of either line is a distance from the airport that means at that distance you would then turn onto the next heading and track the next VOR on full instructions on how to track VOR'S look at my video in the tutorial section in the FSX part of the forum. on the chart it also shows you what height you should be at at what points. But anyway that is Our sid and is quite a simple one to follow :). as you can see on the line it say HON 1R 1Y these are what you would right on your flight plan to let the ATC know what SID out of the airport you are taking. They depend on the runway you are taking of from and as i dont know which one corresponds to which runway im just going to say HON 1R departure however we may be corrected by ATC to the HON 1Y departure.

Now if we go back and look at Gatwick we are ready to get our STAR. Now your looking at the Gatwick charts you need to know which direction were coming in from which happens to be to the north. So we want Standard Arrival Chart - Instrument (STAR) via Astra (north) VOR MID u/s - ICAO as this is the STAR from north if we open this up and remember back to our flight plan and the fact the last VOR on it was KIDLI and we look at the chart we can see KIDLI which is and ASTRA 2B arrival and so just like the SID we would track the VORS towards the end and then get our clearance from atc to land :).

Now we have our SID our route and our STAR it is time to load up flight sim and activate it load up flight sim go free flight select fligtplanning or whatever it is on the free flight section select load and navigate to the file you exported from VROUTE. Load that in and load in at Manchester. When you are connected to vatsim load up the inn control panel FP option and select EGCC as your departure and EGKK as your destination and in the route there should already be HON N859 KIDLI all you need to change it to is HON 1R N859 KIDLI ASTRA 2B (all i have done is putthe sid and star at the beggining and end.)
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ATC Phraseology

Postby ManiaSmurf » Mon Jul 20, 2009 11:15 am

Courtesy of www.vatsim.net

Getting off the ground

�Request IFR clearance� (also heard as �request airways�, �clearance delivery please� or �ready to copy clearance�); Stated by a pilot to indicate to a controller that he/she is requesting an IFR clearance.� A clearance may also be required for non-IFR flight through various types of airspace (visit the local VATSIM page for details).

�Re-send flightplan� The controller is requesting that the pilot resend the flightplan from the connections software, SquawkBox or FSInn, as the flightplan has not propagated through the network properly.� A request for the pilot to edit the flightplan may also be included, if the original route is changed and the controller is using a legacy controlling client.

�Clearance on Request, Standby� (or, Clearance on Hold) Originally designed for towers which must retrieve your IFR clearance from the IFR unit (Terminal controller or en-route controller), is now used by many units to signify that they have received your request for an IFR clearance, and will provide it to you when able. Also used in some countries when waiting for a non-IFR clearance.

(Initial) �IFR clearance� (not spoken with this definition as such) An ATC clearance which provides the pilot with departure instructions (in the case of the initial IFR clearance), a valid route to fly to the clearance limit, which is usually the destination airport (the route issued is usually the route indicated in the flightplan, however may be changed by the controller.� The pilot has the obligation to inform the controller if he/she is unable to fly the route as changed).� By reading back this IFR clearance, the pilot has indicated that he/she will fly in accordance with what the controller has stated.

�Ready to copy (clearance)?� (also heard as �IFR Clearance� (with nothing following that).� Given by ATC after pilot has requested clearance. It is to ensure that the pilot is ready to copy his/her clearance. Often used if there is a delay between the pilot request and ATC getting back with the clearance.�

�Flight-planned route� (locally may be �as filed�) In an initial clearance, the route which the pilot has submitted is acceptable, and the pilot may fly that route.� In the initial clearance or while enroute, waypoints may be added before or after the flight planned route (e.g. �direct SPRAE direct YNY fight-planned route�, in which case the pilot would fly to SPRAE, then to YNY, and then pick up the flight planned route).

�Squawk (nnnn)� A specific code assigned to your aircraft which enables ATC to track it.� Put this four-digit code into your transponder by changing the numbers

�Request VFR departure� A method used by pilots to depart without having to wait for an IFR clearance, when departing VFR the pilot is required to remain in VFR conditions until receiving an IFR clearance; also used by pilots when stating that they intend to make a VFR flight.� VFR departure minima are 3 miles minimum visibility, ceiling at least 1000 feet, and the airspace allows VFR traffic. Once airborne, the aircraft must stay 1000 feet above/below and 500 feet horizontal from any clouds while below 10,000 feet.

�Line Up� (also heard as position and hold or position and wait)� taxi into the runway assigned for take off, align, get ready for take off� but wait for your take off clearance from ATC before applying takeoff power and leaving the runway.

�Depart� Means �take off� but should never be confused with a clearance to take off, can be used in an IFR clearance (e.g. depart runway 34), or while en-route (e.g. what time did you depart).� Will also be used in instructions (e.g. after departure, contact Paris Radar on 128.100 or after departure climb to 5000 feet).

�Runway (number)... Taxi via (route, eg. Charlie, Delta)� Signifies the route that you should taxi via. In some countries, including Canada, and Australia you must be granted express permission to enter any part of any runway. � In other countries, including the United States and many others you may cross any runway until you get to the runway you are proceeding to, and hold short of that. Check with the local VATSIM web site to determine how they operate runway crossing. If in doubt ask the controller.� The order of items in a taxi clearance will vary by region as well.� Note that if you are given an instruction to hold short, this must be read back. May be called as well �Holding point (name of intersection) Runway (number)...� �In order to preclude misunderstandings in radio communications, ATC will not use the word "cleared" in conjunction with authorization for aircraft to taxi.

�Backtrack runway (number)� (also heard as �back taxi runway (number)� Proceed along the runway in the opposite direction of intended takeoff, while taxiing for takeoff.� The pilot may be asked if they require backtrack (or back taxi) when the taxiway intersects the runway at a point other then the threshold. .

�Can you accept an immediate takeoff, runway (number)?� Requests if the pilot is able to takeoff immediately upon receiving a takeoff clearance, usually due to arriving traffic on final approach.� If time must be spent in setting systems, then the answer will be �negative�.

�Cleared for immediate takeoff runway (number)� Signifies that you must take off without any delay, usually because of traffic on final approach.� If you are not ready to take off immediately (e.g. must set autopilot, radios, or GPS, FMS, RNAV system), continue holding short and advise the controller.� Some regions might have slight differences in the wording, such as �Runway (number), cleared for immediate takeoff�.

�Cleared for takeoff runway (number)� Aircraft may take off at their discretion, without undue delay (rolling within 30 seconds); however a quick takeoff is not required. Some regions might have slight differences in the wording such as �Runway (number) cleared for takeoff�.

Instructions while in flight

�Radar Identified� (or radar contact) The controller has radar identified your aircraft.� Online, this is more for procedure than anything else; in the real world, this allows the pilot to omit making position reports, which they would have to do in a non-radar environment. To correctly identify a pilot, controllers need to compare the indicated altitude/flightlevel with the reported altitude/flightlevel. That�s why the present altitude/flightlevel has to be reported by pilots upon initial contact with each controller (except tower and other ground-controllers).

�Squawk normal� (or Squawk mode Charlie) Uncheck the squawk standby box in your network connection software.

�Squawk standby� Check the squawk standby box in your network connection software.

�Squawk Ident� Press the �Ident� button in your connection software, SquawkBox or FSInn.

�Reset (or recycle) Transponder, Squawk (code)� You are being asked to squawk the assigned code for radar identification.� Enter the four digits assigned to you by the controller into the transponder.

�Maintain (altitude)� (or climb and maintain or descend and maintain, or just climb or descend to altitude/flightlevel (number)) You are to leave your current altitude as soon as practicable in order to climb or descend (as appropriate) to the assigned altitude.� You may not level off at an intermediate altitude without permission from ATC.

�Maintain (altitude)� (or climb and maintain or descend and maintain, or just climb or descend to altitude/flightlevel (number)) (at) your (or pilot's) discretion� You are to climb/descend to the assigned altitude, however may remain at your current altitude until you want to descend.� Once in the descent, you may not level off without permission from ATC, nor return to an altitude which you have already left.

�Cross (fix) at (altitude) (or above/or below)� (or descend/climb to altitude/flightlevel (number) to be level by (fix)). Combined with one of the previous two altitude instructions, you must arrange your descent or climb to comply with the restriction.� If you are unable to meet the restriction, inform ATC.� If no alternate instructions are received, commence a hold at the fix, on the inbound track.

�Descend via the (or on the) (star name) as published� Descend so as to comply with the published restrictions on the Approach plate.

�Say (or report, or verify) Altitude� State your indicated Altitude.� This is a check for ATC to assure the pilot has his/her altimeter set correctly.� See �Altimeter (setting)� and �QNH (setting)� below.

�Fly heading (heading)� (or turn right/left heading (heading)) Turn your aircraft in the direction specified (if one is specified), or in the shortest distance, to the specified heading.

�Turn left/right (by) (number) degrees� Alter your heading by the specified number of degrees in the specified direction.� Be careful not to confuse this with an assigned heading.� The correct pilot response to this instruction is �Turn left/right (by) (number) degrees (callsign)�. If the controller wishes for the new heading to be stated, they will state �... and advise new heading�.

�Say (or Report) heading� State your current heading.� This is usually rounded to the nearest 5 degrees.

�Expedite� (or �without delay�) May be added to any altitude or heading instruction, before or after the instruction (will change locally), indicates that the maximum turn or climb/descent rate shall be used.�� Immediate compliance is critical to the separation of aircraft.

�Maintain Mach (number) (or greater/or less)� Maintain the assigned Mach Number, or greater/less if specified.� Issued by ATC for spacing.� A deviation of M.01 is allowed.

�Maintain (number) Knots Indicated Airspeed (or greater/or less)� Maintain the assigned indicated airspeed, or greater/less if specified.� Issued by ATC for spacing.� A deviation of 10% is allowed.

�Maintain maximum safe speed� (also �Maintain Maximum Forward Speed�) �Increase speed so as to fly at the fastest speed which you may safely operate at.� Issued by ATC for spacing.

�Maintain minimum safe speed� Decrease speed so as to fly at the slowest speed which you may safely operate at, including the use of thrust reversers, airbrakes, spoilers, and/or flaps as required (as safe for the aircraft type).

�Maintain minimum clean speed�� Decrease speed so as to fly at the slowest speed which you may safely operate at, without the use of any thrust reversers, airbrakes, spoilers, and/or flaps.

�Maintain (speed) knots indicated (or less/or greater) until (fix)� Maintain the assigned speed, or greater/less if indicated, until crossing the specified fix.� Issued by ATC for spacing.

�Resume Normal Speed� Cancels any speed restriction previously issued.

�Report the field in sight� (or runway in sight) Report when you see the field which you are intending to land at.� This will usually be followed by a visual approach clearance.


Any clearance to execute any of the following approaches cancels any previously issued speed restriction, unless the speed restriction is re-stated with the approach clearance.

�Visual Approach� A procedure wherein the aircraft may proceed to the airport of destination by means of visual reference to the airport.� Used in good-weather conditions to expedite the flight of the aircraft, and/or to reduce workload on the controller.

�ILS Approach� A precision (vertical and horizontal guidance) instrument approach in which the aircraft tunes in the ILS frequency, and receives vertical and lateral guidance by means of glide slope and localizer signals, respectively.� These are signals sent out by ground-based systems, received by the same receiver that your aircraft uses to tune in a VOR.

�Localizer Back-Course Approach� A non-precision instrument approach in which the aircraft tunes in the localizer frequency, and receives lateral guidance by means of the localizer.� Glide slope information may be received, however should not be followed.

�VOR approach� A non-precision approach using simply a VOR for navigation.

�NDB approach� A non-precision approach using simply an NDB (or two or more NDBs, in some areas) for navigation.

�DME approach� In conjunction with one of the instrument approaches listed above, provides more accurate position information by means of DME, or Distance Measuring Equipment.� 1 DME is equal to 1 NM; however there is a slight error because of the way it is measured.

�Full-Procedure Approach� A procedure which may occur in many instrument approaches, in which case the aircraft will execute a �procedure turn� before the final approach segment.� The procedures for the procedure turn (direction, distance, etc.) will be contained in the approach plate.

�Cleared to Land Runway (number)� (or �Runway (number) cleared to land�) A statement which provides the aircraft the authorization to land.

�(Pull up and) Go around� (or �Execute Missed Approach�) The aircraft's authorization to land has been revoked (if such authorization was previously granted), and the aircraft must execute the published missed approach procedure (if on an instrument approach), or if on a visual approach the pilot shall climb to a safe altitude (or the specified circuit altitude within the publications, if such altitude is published), and request directions for the circuit.


�Wind is (direction) at (speed)� � surface wind blows from the specified direction (in degrees magnetic, at the specified number of knots.

�Transition Altitude� is the altitude when you change to a standard altimeter setting/QNH of 29.92 inHg/1013.2 hPA while climbing. �Another way to think of this is that it is the upper altitude that uses local Altimeter/QNH settings. Above the Transition Altitude a standard of 29.92 inHg/1013.2 hPA is used.

�Transition Level� is the flightlevel you change to a local pressure while descending.
Another way to describe this is that it is the lower flightlevel that uses the standard Altimeter/QNH settings. Below the Transition Level, the altimeter gauge must be set to the local atmospheric pressure.

In North America, these are one and the same.�

At and above the transition altitude, a standard altimeter setting/QNH of 29.92 inHg/1013.2 hPA is to be used. Below the Transition Altitude, the local altimeter setting/QNH is to be used. In North America, the Transition Altitude is a standard 18,000 feet, (unless the local barometer is very low) which means that all altitudes of 18000 and above are called Flightlevels (e.g. FL180, FL320, etc.). In many other countries the Transition Altitude varies, and the set Transition Level is also different - this may be published on the charts, or the controller will inform you of what it is.� In Europe, the typical transition altitude is between 3000 (Amsterdam) and 16000ft (Sion, Switzerland), depending on the airport elevation and type of terrain surrounding it.� In Russia, altitude is measured in QFE below the transition level, which means they set the altimeters to reference �o� at the nominal field elevation, regardless of the actual elevation above sea level and altitude is measured in meters.� Simply put, above the Transition Altitude, height is expressed as a Flightlevel; below the Transition Level, it is expressed as altitude (in feet).

The reason for this is that the minimum vertical separation between two aircraft
is 1000ft. As air pressure will vary due to atmospheric changes (lows and highs) pilots have to adjust the altimeter to the local altimeter setting, as altitude is measured by comparing the pressure outside to a set standard.� This is a good solution for flights within a certain area. But when flying longer distances pilots will enter areas where the local air pressure is significantly different from the original setting. This might cause pilots to be far off the indicated altitude as 0.03 inHg or 1 hPa/mb of difference will cause an indication error of roughly 30 ft! If all aircraft are using the standard setting 29.92 inHg/1013.2 hPa above the transition altitude, all aircraft will also have exactly the same indication error and again the vertical separation of 1000ft is ensured and pilots do not need to adjust their altimeters from time to time.

�Transition Layer� - In some countries the TA (transition altitude) and TL (transition level) are at least 1000ft apart, creating an airspace layer between altitudes and flightlevels. This is the transition layer. Due to local air pressure variations the TL will vary to ensure the minimum separation of 1000ft between traffic at the TA and at the TL (remember the 30ft indication-error per 0.03 inHg or 1 hPa of difference!). Additionally any altitude/flightlevel between TA and TL will be avoided by ATC for flights to ensure a positive vertical separation.

�Altimeter (setting)� A four digit pressure, in inches of Mercury (inHg).� There will be a place on your panel (usually near the �altimeter�, the gauge which shows you your pressure) to set this.� It is important to set this setting when below the transition altitude (see above) to ensure your altitude is displayed accurately.

�QNH (setting)� A three to four digit setting, similar to the Altimeter setting, however in millibars/hectopascals instead of inches of mercury.� This is used in most places other than North America. 29.92 inHg = 1013.2 mb/hPa.�

�QFE (setting)� A three to four digit setting, used in countries such as Russia, which refers the altimeter to height above ground level, as opposed to above sea level.

�Radar Services Terminated� The controller is no longer providing you with radar services, however you may still be receiving a control service.� Do not leave the frequency unless authorized, and make position reports as requested.

�Cleared En-Route Frequencies� (or frequency change approved) You are permitted to leave the frequency.� Unless specifically stated otherwise by the controller, you will no longer be receiving a control service. Change to UNICOM-frequency 122.800.

�Flight Following� (or Flight Information Service) Requested by VFR pilots to receive radar monitoring, usually so that they will receive traffic information while enroute.� The aircraft will be requested to squawk a discrete code (one used by only that aircraft) and radar identified.

�Cancel IFR� A procedure used by pilots to gain an operational advantage by no longer having to follow IFR rules, for example avoiding a hold or not having to follow a full instrument procedure.� Aircraft must be in airspace which allows VFR traffic, and have 3 miles visibility and be clear of cloud.� After canceling IFR, the pilot will decide if they want to leave the IFR flightplan open (for alerting services), or close the flightplan and either file a VFR flightplan, or proceed on a Company flight itinerary (also called a company flight note).� The first keeps Air Traffic Services responsible for alerting services; the second puts that responsibility on the aircraft's operator.� On VATSIM, neither really matter, as there are no alerting services provided.

�Vacate (the runway) (to your) left/right� (also heard as exit (first) right/left (when able/on (assigned taxiway).� Instruction from, usually, Tower as to which direction to leave the runway. Not all areas use it but when they do it is usually given during your roll-out.

"Break" The controller is signifying a space between messages. The second message will be addressed to a different aircraft than the first, so all aircraft must pay attention for their identification when hearing this word. After the transmissions are ended, pilots make their readbacks in the order in which they were given the commands.

�Standby� From ATC informing the pilot that the request was heard but there will be a delay before answering. The pilot response to this message is SILENCE. DO NOT respond to �Standby� with �Roger�, �WILCO�, �OK� or anything else, just keep quiet.� If a number of minutes have elapsed since hearing �Standby� and you feel the controller has forgotten you, and the controller does not seem very busy, just call up with your callsign. If the controller has forgotten you (we are all human after all) that call will alert him/her.

�Readback� A request by the controller for the pilot to read back, verbatim, the clearance or instruction that was given to them.

Communication Transfers

�Contact Sumspot Center on (frequency) now� You are to leave the frequency you are on, and contact the new agency on the assigned frequency, without delay.� However, before switching, the instruction must be acknowledged.

�Contact Sumspot Center on (frequency) over (fix, or point), or passing (altitude)� You are to contact the new agency on the specified frequency when passing the specified altitude, or over the specified fix or point.� Normally the previous frequency will be monitored until nearly at that point.
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